Effects of noise and L2 on the timing of turn taking in conversation
Previous studies of floor-transfer offsets (FTO), the offset from when one talker stops talking to the next one starts, suggest that normal conversation requires interlocutors to predict when each other will finish their turn. We hypothesized that increasing the difficulty of holding a conversation by adding noise and/or speaking in a second language (L2) would result in longer FTOs. Conversations from 20 pairs of normal-hearing (NH), native-Danish talkers were elicited using the Diapix task in four conditions consisting of combinations of language (Danish vs. English) and noise background (quiet vs. ICRA 7 noise presented at 70 dBA). Overall, participants took longer to complete the task in both noise and in L2 indicating that both factors reduced communication efficiency. In contrast to our predictions, in the presence of noise, the median of the FTO distribution decreased by approximately 40 ms and the standard deviation decreased by approximately 60 ms. However, the average median duration of utterances increased by 40% in noise. These findings are consistent with talkers holding their turn for longer, which may allow more time for their own speech planning. Overall, the results suggest that talkers may prioritise maintaining social norms for turn-taking fluency when communicating in difficult environments.
Baker, R., and Hazan, V. (2011). “DiapixUK: Task Materials for the Elicitation of Multiple Spontaneous Speech Dialogs,” Behav. Res. Methods, 43(3), 761–70. doi: 10.3758/s13428-011-0075-y
Beechey, T., Buchholz, J.M., and Keidser, G. (2018). “Measuring communication difficulty through effortful speech production during conversation,” Speech Commun., 100, 18-29. doi: 10.1016/j.specom.2018.04.007
de Jong, N. and Wempe, T. (2009). “Praat script to detect syllable nuclei and measure speech rate automatically,”Behav. Res. Methods, 41, 385-90. doi: 10.3758/BRM.41.2.385
Dreschler, W., Verschuure, H., Ludvigsen, C. and Westermann, S. (2001). “ICRA Noises: Artificial Noise Signals with Speech-like Spectral and Temporal Properties for Hearing Instrument Assessment,” Int. J. Audiol., 40(3), 148–57. doi: 0.3109/00206090109073110
Gravano, A., and Hirschberg, J. (2011). “Turn-taking cues in task-oriented dialogue”, Comput. Speech Lang., 25, 601–634. doi: 10.1016/j.csl.2010.10.003
Hadley, L. V., Brimijoin, W. O., and Whitmer, W. M. (2019). “Speech, movement, and gaze behaviours during dyadic conversation in noise,” Sci. Rep., 9, 10451. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-46416-0
Levinson, S. C., and Torreira, F.(2015). “Timing in turn-taking and its implications for processing models of language,” Front. Psychol. 6, 731. doi: 10.1038/s41598- 019-46416-0
Sørensen, A. J. M, Fereczkowski, M., and MacDonald, E. N. (2018). “Task dialog by native-Danish talkers in Danish and English in both quiet and noise,” Dataset. doi: 10.5281/zenodo.1204951
Sørensen, A. J. M., Lunner, T., and MacDonald, E. N (2020). “Timing of turn taking between normal-hearing and hearing-impaired interlocutors,” Proc. ISAAR, 7, 37-44.
Stivers, T., Enfield, N. J., Brown, P., Englert, C., Hayashi, M., Heinemann, T., Hoymann, G., Rossano, F., de Ruiter, J.P., Yoon, K., Levinson, S.C. (2009). “Universals and cultural variation in turn-taking in conversation,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Jun 2009, 106(26), 10587-10592. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0903616106
Van Engen, K. J., Baese-Berk, M., Baker, R. E., Choi, A., Kim, M., and Bradlow, A. R. (2010). “The Wildcat Corpus of Native-and Foreign-accented English: Commu- nicative Efficiency across Conversational Dyads with Varying Language Align- ment Profiles,” Lang. Speech, 53(4), 510–540. doi: 10.1177/0023830910372495
Wheeldon, L. R., and Levelt, W. J. M. (1995). “Monitoring the time-course of phono- logical encoding,” J. Mem. Lang., 34, 311–334. doi: 10.1006/jmla.1995.1014
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
a. Authors retain copyright* and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
b. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
c. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
*From the 2017 issue onward. The Danavox Jubilee Foundation owns the copyright of all articles published in the 1969-2015 issues. However, authors are still allowed to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.