Auditory adaptation in real and virtual rooms
Keywords:auditory adaptation, spatial hearing, virtual acoustic environments, externalization
Walking from room to room in real listening conditions is a natural process in our everyday life and there is no obvious challenge for our auditory system to cope with. However, in experiments with virtual acoustic environments switching the virtual room or switching from real to virtual rooms can result in auditory confusions which can lead to in-head localization. This effect is known as the room divergence effect. A series of listening tests were conducted to verify this effect under different conditions as well as experiments which studied the effect of prior sound exposure and the time variant behaviour of it. In this paper two of these experiments are described and discussed. The first experiment shows that the extent of the room divergence effect depends on the room acoustics we have just learned. That indicates, that the room divergence effect is diminished during ongoing exposure to a specific room acoustic condition. The second listening test shows further evidence of this time-variant effect and we show that it can be suppressed by interrupting with the adaptation process. These tests raise the question why switching virtual rooms leads to temporary confusions but doing so with real rooms is unproblematic. Different theories are discussed in this publication.
Clifton, R. K. (1987), “Breakdown of echo suppression in the precedence effect,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 82(5), 1834–1835.
Clifton, R. K. and Freyman, R. L. (1989), “Effect of click rate and delay on breakdown of the precedence effect,” Percept. Psychophys., 2(49), 139–145.
Clifton, R. K., Freyman, R. L., Litovsky, R. Y., and McCall, D. (1994), “Listeners’ expectations about echos can raise or lower echo threshold,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 95(3), 1525–1533.
Djelani, T. and Blauert, J. (2001), “Investigations into the Build-up and Breakdown of the Precedence Effect,” Acta Acust united Ac., 87(2), 253–261.
Freyman, R. L., Clifton, R. K., and Litovsky, R. Y. (1991), “Dynamic Processes in the Precedence Effect,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 90(2), 874–884.
Keen, R. and Freyman, R. L. (2009), “Release and re-buildup of listeners’ models of auditory space,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 125(5), 3243 – 3252.
King, A. J. (2008), “Visual influences on auditory spatial learning,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci., 364(1515), 331–339.
Klein, F. and Werner, S. (2017), “Influences of training on externalization in binaural synthesis in situations of room divergence,” J. Audio Eng. Soc., 65(3).
Litovsky, R. Y., Colburn, H. S., Yost, W. A., and Guzman, S. (1999), “The precedence effect,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 106(4), 1633–1654.
Mendonça, C. (2014), “A review on auditory space adaptations to altered head-related cues,” Front. Neurosci., 8(219), 1–14.
Moore, D. R., Halliday, L. F., and Amitay, S. (2009), “Use of auditory learning to manage listening problems in children,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci., 364, 409 – 420.
Plenge, G. (1972), “Über das Problem der Im-Kopf-Lokalisation [On the Problem of In Head Localization],” Acustica, 26(5), 241–252.
Raake, A. and Blauert, J. (2013), “Comprehensive modeling of the formation process of sound-quality,” Proc. Quality of Multimedia Experience (QoMEX).
Seeber, B. U., Müller, M., and Menzer, F. (2016), “Does learning a room’s reflections aid spatial hearing?” Proc. ICA.
Smyth, S., Smyth, M., and Cheung, S. (2008), “Smyth SVS headphone surround monitoring for studios,” 23rd UK Conference of the Audio Engineering Society.
Toole, F. E. (1970), “In-Head Localization of Acoustic Images,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 48(4B), 943–949.
Wallach, H., Newman, E. B., and Rosenzweig, M. R. (1949), “The Precedence Effect in Sound Localization,” Am. J. Psychol., 62(3), 315–336.
Werner, S., Go ̈tz, G., and Klein, F. (2017), “Influence of Head Tracking on the Externalization of Auditory Events at Divergence between Synthesized and Listening Room Using a Binaural Headphone System,” Audio Engineering Society Convention 142.
Werner, S., Klein, F., Mayenfels, T., and Brandenburg, K. (2016), “A Summary on Acoustic Room Divergence and its Effect on Externalization of Auditory Events,” Proc. Quality of Multimedia Experience (QoMEX).
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
a. Authors retain copyright* and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
b. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
c. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
*From the 2017 issue onward. The Danavox Jubilee Foundation owns the copyright of all articles published in the 1969-2015 issues. However, authors are still allowed to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.